Despite the book becoming a best seller, no Hollywood studio was interested because of its content. The crew of Houston called their month-long filming schedule the "Hunt for Red Ops." The ship operated out of U.S. Coast Guard Station Port Angeles. Previous Next Hide Grid. After that point, all the Soviets' dialogue is communicated in English. Petty Officer Jones, a sonar technician aboard Dallas, has discovered a way to detect Red October using his underwater acoustics software, and Dallas plots their own intercept course. | The “Hunt for Red October” cast is a wealth of acting riches. Filming & Production 1:38 the-hunt-for-red-october. Meanwhile, Ryan, Mancuso, and Jones come aboard via a rescue sub, at which point Ramius requests asylum for himself and his officers. There were 62 people in a very confined space, 45 feet (14 m) above the stage floor. Perfectly cast and packed with suspense, The Hunt for Red October is an old-fashioned submarine thriller with plenty of firepower to spare. [13][14] In one scene, where USS Dallas is chasing Red October through the submarine canyon, the crew can be heard calling out that they have various "milligal anomalies". • Sean Connery as Marko Ramius, Commanding Officer of Red October (SSBN) For the 30th Anniversary commemoration, Paramount Pictures Home Entertainment released a 4K Steelbook + Blu-Ray+Digital version of the film. The next morning, CIA analyst and former Marine Jack Ryan, after consulting with Vice Admiral James Greer, briefs government officials on Red October and the threat it poses. The Russian submarine Captain, Marko Ramius (Sir Sean Connery), defects. It got very hot on the sets, and I'm also prone to sea sickness. Quiz by geronimostilton The film, well-made and memorably cast, is a solid piece of work, but it its impact is chilled by its stolid spirit. The Hunt for Red October features an A-list (male) cast. This essentially revealed the use of gravimetry as a method of silent navigation in US submarines. As the two Soviet subs maneuver, one of Red October's cooks, Loginov, an undercover GRU agent and the secret saboteur, opens fire on the bridge, fatally wounding first officer Vasily Borodin before retreating to the nuclear missile bay. Sean Connery stars in The Hunt for Red October (1990). Providing inspiration for Tom Clancy's The Hunt for Red October, the 1975 mutiny aboard the Soviet destroyer Storozhevoy (translated Sentry) aimed at nothing less than the overthrow of Leonid Brezhnev and the Soviet government. Tupolev Jeffrey Jones Skip Tyler Konovalov, had interiors in black with chrome trim. Crew from USS La Jolla, including Lt Mark Draxton, took leave to participate in filming. After names like Cary Grant and David Niven passed on it, relative unknown Sean Connery was cast as … | Thompson. [27], The Hunt for Red October was nominated and won several awards in 1991. [6] Some extras portraying the Dallas crew were serving submariners, including the pilot of the DSRV, Lt Cmdr George Billy. Some of the principal cast had previous military service which they drew on for their roles. The film is an adaptation of Tom Clancy's 1984 bestselling novel of the same name. [4] The producers faxed the script to Sean Connery, who at first declined because the script seemed implausible in portraying the Soviet Union as an ambitious naval power. Screenwriters Larry Ferguson and Donald Stewart worked on the screenplay while Neufeld approached the U.S. Navy for approval. Company Credits The site's consensus states: "Perfectly cast and packed with suspense, The Hunt for Red October is an old-fashioned submarine thriller with plenty of firepower to spare. Diving Officer - Red October: Sven-Ole Thorsen ... Russian COB - Red October: Michael Welden … In November 1984, Soviet submarine captain Marko Ramius is given command of Red October, a new Typhoon-class nuclear missile submarine with a stealth "caterpillar drive", rendering it undetectable to passive sonar. Meanwhile, Red October makes evasive maneuvers with a diversion provided by Dallas, causing V. K. Konovalov to be destroyed by its own fired torpedo. Shop for hunt for red october at Best Buy. However, several admirals liked Clancy's book and reasoned that the film could do for submariners what Top Gun did for the Navy's jet fighter pilots. Find full cast and crew information for the program The Hunt for Red October. In addition, the film was also nominated for AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills.[28]. You can view additional information about each The Hunt for Red October actor on this list, such as when and where they were born. The “Hunt for the Red October” was first written by a famous spy-genre novelist, Tom Clancy in 1984. He then stages a nuclear reactor "emergency," ordering his crew to abandon ship. Only towards the climax of the film, at the beginning of the scene in which the Soviet and American submariners meet, do some of the actors speak in Russian again. [26] Vincent Canby, writing for The New York Times, opined that "the characters, like the lethal hardware, are simply functions of the plot, which in this case seems to be a lot more complex than it really is". Marko Ramius Alec Baldwin Jack Ryan Scott Glenn Capt. Meanwhile, after some delay, Tupolev also receives orders to intercept and destroy Red October. Very disturbing." Set during this period, there were concerns that with its end, the film would be irrelevant but Neufeld felt that it "never really represented a major problem". However, during one scene when Dallas goes to a higher alert status it was flooded with red light. Charlie, but you might consider cuttin' the kid a little slack. Can you name the missing words in the names of these films that feature cast members of the film The Hunt for Red October? Tomas Arana Loginov. Each country's submarine had its own background color: Soviet submarines, such as Red October and V.K. The ‘Typhoon-class sub’ is a huge superstructure built on top of two 350-feet-long barges welded together. Directed by: John McTiernan. "The Hunt for Red October" has more than a dozen important speaking roles, in addition to many more cast members who are crucial for a scene or two. Following its wide theatrical release, the film was nominated for and won a number of accolades. Call it The Connery factor -- sure, he’s miscast but just try taking your eyes off of him. Official Sites Paramount Pictures. Key cast and crew members rode along in subs, including Alec Baldwin and Scott Glenn, who took an overnight trip aboard Salt Lake City commanded by then Commander Thomas B. Fargo. According to an article in Sea Classics, at least two sailors from the Atlantic Fleet-based Dallas took leave and participated in the Pacific Fleet-supported filming. Fun facts: cast, trivia, popularity rankings, and more. Music by: Basil Poledouris. The Hunt For The 2020 Mega Cast It's the 2020 Mega Cast! Producer: Mace Neufeld. The Hunt for Red October opened in 1,225 theaters on March 2, 1990, grossing $17 million on its opening weekend, more than half its budget. [15] The last Typhoon-class submarine was officially laid down in 1986, under the name TK-210, but according to sources was never finished and scrapped in 1990. The soundtrack is limited due to the fact that it was originally compiled to fit the Compact Cassette. [4] Captain Michael Sherman, director of the Navy's western regional information office in Los Angeles, suggested changes to the script that would present the Navy in a positive light. Vasily Borodin Joss Ackland Andrei Lysenko Richard Jordan Jeffrey Pelt Peter Firth Ivan Putin Tim Curry Dr. Petrov Courtney B. Vance Seaman Jones Stellan Skarsgård Capt. Find low everyday prices and buy online for delivery or in-store pick-up The Hunt for Red October Critics Consensus. Daniel Davis Capt. The film opened at number one at the U.S. box office and remained there for three weeks. We couldn't keep the characters straight any other way. Keywords: Action/Adventure, Submarine, Cold War Ramius, stunned that the Americans correctly guessed his plan, accepts. Davenport. In 1990, the book was turned into a film starring Sean Connery. Connery recalled, "It was very claustrophobic. The film was a co-production between the motion picture studios Paramount Pictures, Mace Neufeld Productions, and Nina Saxon Film Design. With the clock ticking, Dallas must first locate Red October then figure out how to “talk” to its captain – all the while with the entire Soviet fleet intending to destroy the rogue submarine. The production’s insurance company insisted that this massive prop could only be used within the … The film begins with the actors speaking Russian with English subtitles. [5], Made before sophisticated CGI became the norm in filmmaking, the film's opening sequence featured a long pull-out reveal of the immense titular Typhoon-class sub. It was thought to be deployed on only a few Ohio-class submarines after it was first developed in 1973. Instead, five soundstages on the Paramount backlot were used. The Hunt for Red October (2-Mar-1990) Director: John McTiernan. The veteran actor shot for four weeks and the rest of the production shot for additional months on location in Port Angeles, Washington and the waters off Los Angeles. Writers: Larry Ferguson; Donald Stewart. The story is set during the late Cold War era and involves a rogue Soviet naval captain who wishes to defect to the United States with his officers and the Soviet Navy's newest and most advanced nuclear missile submarine, a fictional improvement on the Soviet ICBM capable Typhoon-class submarine. The Hunt for Red October author Tom Clancy dies aged 66 The best-selling spy novellist created CIA analyst Jack Ryan, portrayed on the big screen by Alec Baldwin, Harrison Ford and Ben Affleck An expanded version was released in late 2013 by Intrada Records. American ships, such as Dallas and Enterprise, had grey interiors. Find low everyday prices and buy online for delivery or in-store pick-up The idea was to play up the thriller aspects and downplay the political elements. Coop is joined by Mo Egger from ESPN 1530 and 700 WLW radio in Cincinnati, Chad Dotson from the Redleg Nation podcast, Wick Terrell from the Red Reporter podcast, Jeff Carr from the Locked on Reds podcast, and Steven Offenbaker from the Reds Alert podcast. His goal is taking it to the U.S. to prevent the Russians from using it to start nuclear war against the U.S. From atop the submarine's sail deck, Ramius, pleased to have made it to America, offers Ryan a (fictional)[3] quote from Christopher Columbus: "And the sea will grant each man new hope; as sleep brings dreams of home." Cast Sean Connery Capt. The Hunt for Red October is the debut novel by American author Tom Clancy, first published on October 1, 1984 by the Naval Institute Press. In addition, the director's father, John McTiernan Sr., has a credited cameo as one of the attendees at Ryan's briefing of the National Security Advisor. Find actors and director of the program The Hunt for Red October Director John McTiernan Full Cast. A CIA analyst correctly deduces his motive and must prove his theory to the U.S. Navy before a violent confrontation between the Soviet and the American navies spirals out of control. [20], The film went on to gross $122,012,643 in North America with a worldwide total of $200,512,643. Technical Specs, See agents for this cast & crew on IMDbPro, production supervisor: second unit (as Joel B. Marx), first assistant director (as Jerry L. Ballew), second assistant director (as Steve 'Stevo' Danton), first assistant director: UK (uncredited), construction coordinator (as Dennis De Waay), supervising re-recording mixer (as Don Bassman), additional sound effects (as John Paul Fasal), special effects assistant (as William R. Aldridge), special effects assistant (as Manny Epstein), special effects assistant (as Richard L. Thompson), model effects: WKR Productions (uncredited), editor: The Chandler Group (as Dave Bartholomew), mechanisms: Boss Film Corporation (as Gary Bierend), visual effects art director: Boss Film Corporation, computer graphics: ILM (as Mark Earnest Dippe), visual effects consultant: Boss Film Corporation (as Michael Fink), production assistant: Boss Film Corporation (as Jennifer Howard), production assistant: Boss Film Corporation, model shop supervisor: Boss Film Corporation (as Greg Jein), key miniature mechanisms: Boss Film Corporation (as Bobby Johnston), executive in charge of post-production: ILM (as Ed L. Jones), computer graphics: ILM (as Sandra R. Ford), visual effects producer: ILM (as Kimberly K. Nelson), optical coordinator: The Chandler Group (as Jennifer Miller), animation effects camera: ILM (as Patrick T. Meyers), computer graphics: ILM (as Steve Rosenbaum), visual effects camera: ILM (as Marty Rosenberg), operator: The Chandler Group (as Wallace Schaab), model maker: Boss Film Corporation (as Nicholas Seldon), visual effects director of photography: Boss Film Corporation (as Dave Stewart), director of photography: ILM (as Patrick Sweeney), computer graphics: ILM (as Steve Williams), assistant camera: Boss Film Corporation (uncredited), model maker: Boss Film Corporation (uncredited), visual effects post production coordinator (uncredited), video image production assistant (uncredited), motion control camera assistant (uncredited), visual effects consultant: mass illusion (uncredited), miniature effects lighting: Sessums Engineering (uncredited), visual effects coordinator: Boss Film (uncredited), stunt coordinator (as Charles Picerni Jr.), chief lighting technician (as Edward A. Ayer), assistant chief lighting technician (as Ted Kredo), assistant photographer: second unit (as Chris Mosley), first assistant photographer (as Cal Roberts), second unit: camera operator (uncredited), assistant film editor (as John A. Haggar), assistant film editor (as Michael A. Ruscio), conductor (uncredited) / music producer (uncredited) / musician: keyboards (uncredited) / orchestrator (uncredited), transportation coordinator (as Myra L. Hill), assistant: Mr. Neufeld (as Elisabeth Kern), video and graphic displays: Video Image (as Gregory L. McMurray), grateful acknowledgment: USN (as Lieutenant Commander George Billy), grateful acknowledgment: USN (as Lieutenant James E. Brooks), grateful acknowledgment: USN (as Lieutenant Scott D. Campbell), grateful acknowledgment: USNR (as Lieutenant Commander Ronald F. Pinkard), grateful acknowledgment: USN (as Captain Michael T. Sherman). Connery continued using the Russian accent for the rest of the motion picture. [19], On Rotten Tomatoes the film has a "Certified Fresh" 89% rating based on 71 reviews, with an average score of 7.74/10. [12], By March 1990, just before the film's theatrical release, the Soviet Parliament removed the Communist Party from government, effectively ending the Cold War. Baldwin and Glenn spent time on a Los Angeles-class submarine. [19] Its opening was the 20th biggest weekend of all time and the biggest non-summer, non-Thanksgiving weekend to date. Ryan and Ramius, their subterfuge complete, navigate Red October to the Penobscot River in Maine. Ryan arranges a hazardous mid-ocean rendezvous to board Dallas, where he attempts to persuade its captain, Commander Bart Mancuso, to contact Ramius and determine his intentions. From novel: The Hunt for Red October by Tom Clancy. [9], The film caused a minor sensation in the black projects submarine warfare technology community. The set would tilt to 45 degrees. Louisville was used for the scene in which Baldwin is dropped from a helicopter to the submarine. [22] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale. At the same time, American attack submarine USS Dallas, tasked with identifying and shadowing Soviet subs as they leave port, detects Red October as it begins its mission, but immediately loses contact once the sub's caterpillar drive is engaged. Bart Mancuso James Earl Jones Admiral James Greer Sam Neill Capt. Early filming was aboard USS Reuben James in the area of the Juan de Fuca Strait and Puget Sound in March 1989. List of all cast members for program The Hunt for Red October. Though that setting produces rich drama, it dulls the drama's thrills. Glenn based his portrayal of Commander Bart Mancuso on Fargo.[4]. [11] Rather than choosing between the realism of Russian dialog with subtitles, or the audience-friendly use of English (with or without Russian accents), the filmmakers compromised with a deliberate conceit. Tom Clancy's thriller about a Soviet commander heading for the US coast in a missile-laden submarine. The Hunt for Red October is a 1990 film based on the best-selling novel of the same name by Tom Clancy.It was directed by John McTiernan and stars Sean Connery as Captain Marko Ramius and Alec Baldwin as Jack Ryan.The film is followed by the 1992 film, Patriot Games. It depicts Soviet submarine captain Marko Ramius as he seemingly goes rogue with his country's cutting-edge ballistic missile submarine Red October, and marks the first appearance of Clancy's most popular fictional character Jack Ryan, an analyst working for the Central Intelligence Agency, as he must prove his theory that Ramius had intended to defect to the United Stat… The Hunt for Red October. [9] The Navy lent the film crew Houston, Enterprise, two frigates (Wadsworth and Reuben James), helicopters, and a dry-dock crew.[5]. Due to an unknown saboteur's actions, Red October's caterpillar drive malfunctions during risky maneuvers through a narrow undersea canyon. Theatrically, it was commercially distributed by Paramount Pictures and by the Paramount Home Entertainment division for home media markets. The Hunt For Red October was largely sold around the late, great Sean Connery's leading turn, but he was actually a last-minute replacement for a previous James Bond villain. They feared top secret information or technology might be revealed. Anthony Peck Lt. Comdr. 1 / Video . To compensate for the change in the Soviet Union's political climate, an on-screen crawl appears at the beginning of the film stating that it takes place in 1984 during the Cold War. The U.S. fears Ramius plans a renegade nuclear strike. Image . [17] The album is missing some of the musical moments present in the film, including the scene where the crew of Red October sings the Soviet national hymn. Ryan, however, is convinced that Ramius plans to defect with his officers and convinces Mancuso to contact Ramius and offer assistance. Ned Vaughn Seaman Beaumont. The Hunt for Red October's cast and crew. Once at sea, Ramius secretly kills political officer Ivan Putin and relays false orders that they are to conduct missile drills off America's east coast. Hunt for Red October, The . | After a U.S. frigate is spotted, Ramius submerges. [25] In contrast, Newsweek's David Ansen wrote, "But it's at the gut level that Red October disappoints. Previous Next Show Grid. What McTiernan does is to typecast without stereotyping. It features 40 additional minutes of the score, including the until-then-unreleased end titles.[18]. During the briefing, Ryan hypothesizes that Ramius instead plans to defect, and National Security Advisor Jeffrey Pelt gives Ryan three days to confirm his theory. Neufeld said, "I read some of the reports from the other studios, and the story was too complicated to understand". Bell Aerospace later sold the technology to Bell Geospace for oil exploration purposes. Computer effects, in their infancy, created bubbles and other effects such as particulates in the water. Tony Seiniger designed the film's poster and drew inspiration from Soviet poster art, using bold red, white and black graphics. Shop for the hunt for red october dvd at Best Buy. Baldwin was trained to drive an attack submarine. Best lines delivered by Fred Thompson. Can you name the missing words in the names of these films that feature cast members of the film The Hunt for Red October? John McTiernan's "The Hunt for Red October" is a submarine thriller set to slow burn. They also learn that the bulk of the Soviet Navy has been deployed to the Atlantic to find and sink the sub. Ramius leaves port to conduct exercises along with Alfa-class submarine Konovalov, commanded by his former student Captain Tupolev. The Hunt for Red October has always been a favorite movie of my family.I don’t know what it is about a Soviet commander defecting to the United … Any film with a cast this large must depend to some extent on typecasting. [5], The Navy gave the filmmakers access to several Los Angeles-class submarines, allowing them to photograph unclassified sections of both Chicago and Portsmouth to use in set and prop design. Thought to be a billion dollar black project, the development of a full-tensor gravity gradiometer by Bell Aerospace was a classified technology at the time. [10] He was asked to rewrite the whole film but was only required to do the Russian sequences. The Hunt for Red October received mostly positive reviews from critics and was the 6th top-grossing domestic film of the year, generating $122 million in North America and more than $200 million worldwide in box office business. Once the Red October itself is seen, that’s a different story. Filmmaker John Milius revised some of the film's script, writing a few speeches for Sean Connery and all of his Russian dialogue. He is sent to an aircraft carrier in the mid-Atlantic. Release Dates Learn about The Hunt for Red October: discover its cast ranked by popularity, see when it released, view trivia, and more. Red October is suddenly attacked by V. K. Konovalov. Rated the #60 best film of 1990, and #6396 in the greatest all-time movies (according to RYM users). In November 1984, at the height of the Cold War, the Soviet Union creates a new nuclear submarine that runs silent due to a revolutionary propulsion system. Houston made more than 40 emergency surfacing "blows" for rehearsal and for the cameras. It included a nearly full-scale, above-the-water-line mockup of the sub, constructed from two barges welded together. Sean Connery had served in the Royal Navy, Scott Glenn in the United States Marine Corps and James Earl Jones in the United States Army. Famous Birthdays [7] Baldwin was approached in December 1988, but was not told for what role. "[21] On Metacritic, it has a weighted average score of 58 out of 100 based on 17 reviews, indicating "mixed or average views". Producer Mace Neufeld optioned Tom Clancy's novel after reading galley proofs in February 1985. 1 / Audio . According to him, the whole ad campaign was designed to have a "techno-suspense quality to it". The Soviet ambassador informs the U.S. government that Ramius is a renegade and asks for help in sinking Red October. Klaus Maria Brandauer was cast as Soviet sub commander Marko Ramius but two weeks into filming he quit due to a prior commitment. Later, it was remastered for the CD. [23], Roger Ebert gave the film three-and-a-half stars out of four, calling it "a skillful, efficient film that involves us in the clever and deceptive game being played",[24] while Gene Siskel commented on the film's technical achievement and Baldwin's convincing portrayal of Jack Ryan. The Hunt for Red October cast list, listed alphabetically with photos when available. The film is a somewhat faithful adaptation of Clancy's novel, though there are many deviations, including Red October traveling up the Penobscot River in Maine to dry dock, the omission of the Royal Navy task force including Ryan's time aboard HMS Invincible, the death of Borodin rather than Kamarov, and the V. K. Konovalov being serendipitously destroyed by its own torpedo as opposed to the planned explosion of the USS Ethan Allen. This smoother, impressively mounted machine is curiously ungripping. Submariners from San Diego were cast as extras because it was easier to hire them than to train actors. Find movie and film cast and crew information for The Hunt for Red October (1990) - John McTiernan on AllMovie Genres: Political Thriller, Thriller. At the 63rd Academy Awards, the film was honored with the Academy Award for Best Sound Editing, along with nominations for Best Sound Mixing and Best Film Editing. It depicts a rogue Soviet submarine captain who tries to defect to America, but by doing … That order is sent to the U.S. fleet, including Dallas, which has found the Soviet sub. [16], The musical score of The Hunt for Red October was composed and conducted by Basil Poledouris. The Hunt for Red October is one of the best submarine films ever made, and a favorite of dads everywhere. [9] Principal photography began on April 3, 1989 with a $30 million budget. But in an early scene, actor Peter Firth casually switches in mid-sentence to speaking in English on the word "Armageddon", which is the same spoken word in both languages. It is the first installment of the film series with the protagonist Jack Ryan. Ryan nods in agreement and offers in return, "Welcome to the New World, sir.". On June 12, 1990, the original soundtrack, composed and conducted by Basil Poledouris, was released by MCA Records. [4] After a year and a half he finally got a high-level executive at Paramount Pictures to read Clancy's novel and agree to develop it into a film. The crew of Red October, now rescued, watch the explosion from the U.S. frigate; unaware of the second Soviet submarine, they believe that Ramius has sacrificed himself and scuttled Red October to avoid being boarded. Ryan and Ramius pursue him, and Loginov wounds Ramius in the shoulder, but Ryan kills Loginov before he can ignite a missile. A soundtrack album composed of ten melodies was released on June 12, 1990. Fred Dalton Thompson Admiral Painter. Most underwater scenes were filmed using smoke with a model sub connected to 12 cables, giving precise, smooth control for turns. Test your knowledge on this movies quiz and compare your score to others. | Nick Schager, for Slant magazine's review, noted, "The Hunt for Red October is a thrilling edge-of-your-seat trifle that has admirably withstood the test of time". [8] He arrived in L.A. on a Friday and was supposed to start filming on Monday but he requested a day to rehearse. The unquestioned “draw” was Connery, who had settled nicely into his post-007 life. Let’s start with cinema’s most famous Scotsman playing a Russian. Select any member to see details info. Two 50-square-foot (4.6 m2)[verification needed] platforms housing mock-ups of Red October and Dallas were built, standing on hydraulic gimbals that simulated the sub's movements. Ramius admits that he defected because after he was handed the plans for Red October, a nuclear war first-strike weapon, he concluded that he could never support such an action. This list of The Hunt for Red October actors includes any The Hunt for Red October actresses and all other actors from the film. Like an overfilled kettle, it takes far too long to come to a boil". Previous Next. He was missing the first page which set the story before Gorbachev's coming to power, when the events of the book would have seemed more plausible. The Hunt for Red October is a 1990 American submarine spy thriller film directed by John McTiernan, produced by Mace Neufeld, and starring Sean Connery, Alec Baldwin, Scott Glenn, James Earl Jones, and Sam Neill. Filming in submarines was impractical. Starring: Sam Neill, Scott Glenn, Alec Baldwin, Sean Connery. Segaloff, Nat, "John Milius: The Good Fights", "And the Sea Will Grant Each Man New Hope, As Sleep Brings Dreams of Home", "5 Things You Didn't Know About Alec Baldwin", "14 Deep Facts About The Hunt for Red October", "Submarine thriller surfaces with Connery in command", "The Hunt for Red October [Original Motion Picture Soundtrack]  – Overview", "Reviews/Film; Connery as Captain of a Renegade Soviet Sub", "The 63rd Academy Awards (1991) Nominees and Winners", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Hunt_for_Red_October_(film)&oldid=1002237477, Films that won the Best Sound Editing Academy Award, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from January 2020, Album articles lacking alt text for covers, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Richard Bryce Goodman, Richard Overton, Kevin F. Cleary, Don J. Bassman, Cecelia Hall, George Watters II, Richard Bryce Goodman, Don J. Bassman, This page was last edited on 23 January 2021, at 13:41.